Microsoft Access and Medical Private Practice

For physicians medical office software installation could be nerve-wracking, not because they want to avoid electronic medical records, but because the majority of the software packages are too complicated and very expensive for them.

The good news is, you can make your medical office software system uncomplicated and relatively easily maintained with one of the popular database software packages being used today, the Microsoft Access.

Microsoft Access is a relational database system developed by Microsoft. Microsoft Access is one of the easiest and most flexible database management solutions for the medical office and provides data validation and user-friendly features on data entry screens. It has been the dominant lightweight database system used for the last decade and has continued to grow with additional features. Access is a productive and very customizable solution for small medical practices and comes with MS Office (or standalone). However the next step up in a medical environment would be MS SQL Server but small medical offices usually only has need of a lightweight application and the added functionality with MS SQL Server, comes with a heavy price.

With this relational database system you can be up and running in one hour, which means that it is not necessary for your practice to spend lot of money to purchase, configure, update and maintain an SQL Server solution. Microsoft Access includes without any additional costs, points of integration with popular software packages including: Microsoft Word, Excel & Outlook and provides a free runtime version.

MS Access network setup is very easy. A medical office with 2-8 users is up and running within ten minutes, while installation and application maintenance is extremely simple. Virtually any user with a basic knowledge of Microsoft Access can handle all maintenance procedures without the assistance of IT personnel.

Keep also in mind that SQL Server is the flagship database system from Microsoft and it is suitable for use in environments with up to thousands of users. Microsoft Access can handle 2- 8 users and it is limited to 2 GB data storage.

We are convinced that the best way for private medical offices around the world to enter the world of electronic medical records is to purchase a professionally designed but inexpensive and affordable Microsoft Access based software solution.

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How to Repair DBF Files by Using DBF Recovery Software

As a computer user you must have heard about a DBF file or some of you have used it. DBF is a database file format used by various database software programs, such as: Visual FoxPro, Clipper, dbFast, CodeBase, MultiBase, dbXL, Arago and similar database programs. A database file is a collection of data organized in a tabular form. A DBF file can be easily opened, edited and saved by any of these database programs therefore, this file format is very popular among computer users.

The most common use of a database file is to store a large amount of data and information. The file is widely used in almost every sector, such as: corporate and educational sectors to store the data and information. It has become an essential file format for an individual and an organization.

Where this file format is very useful for users on the other hand, it may create some serious problems as well. Sometimes a DBF file may become inaccessible or invalid due to corruption. DBF is not immune to corruption; in fact, this file format is prone to corruption due to its large size and complex file structure. It might be easily corrupted due to various reasons, such as: virus attacks, malfunction in database application, hard disk drive failure, software collision, unexpected cancellation of DBF, human errors and many more. These are some common reasons which can play an important role in database file corruption.

While opening a corrupt DBF file you may receive some error messages something like these:

  • “File .dbf does not exist”.
  • “The fields in table did not match the entries in the database”.
  • “Access to table disabled due to previous error”.
  • “Database file appears corrupt: Page is of wrong type.
  • “Corrupt table”/ “index header”.
  • “Filename .dbf has become corrupted”.

These are some common errors which frequently take place at the time of corruption. For example: you are working on your DBF file, everything is fine. But all of a sudden your database application (Visual FoxPro or other) starts hanging. You have no other option other than restarting the system. But when you restart your system and open the same DBF file, in which you were working earlier, it does not open or you get an error message saying the file is corrupted or damaged. This must be very frustrating situation for any user since all the hard work will go into the vain. All the data and information stored in the file might be lost forever. You have to re-create the file, which might not be possible in some cases.

In such critical state a BKF file will definitely help you. If you have backed up the database file (which is now corrupted), then you can easily restore it from the BKF file. But sometimes the BKF file may not be available or corrupted or invalid. In this situation you can use third-party DBF recovery software. This is one of the most efficient and effective solutions to fix corrupt DBF files. The DBF recovery software is designed to repair an extremely corrupted DBF file and to restore maximum data from it. It is highly capable to resolve or fix all the errors from corrupted DBF files. The software supports all popular database applications, such as: dBase III, dBase IV, dBase V, Visual FoxPro, Clipper, dBFast, CodeBase, MultiBase, dBXL and Arago. The best feature of the software is its self-describing user interface. It requires no technical knowledge or skills to use this software. Any tech savvy and a novice user can easily and comfortably use this software to repair corrupted DBF files. The DBF Recovery software is available with free demo version. Users can download the demo version before buying the full software. This helps users to examine the features and performance.

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Why Do We Need Software Engineering?

To understand the necessity for software engineering, we must pause briefly to look back at the recent history of computing. This history will help us to understand the problems that started to become obvious in the late sixties and early seventies, and the solutions that have led to the creation of the field of software engineering. These problems were referred to by some as “The software Crisis,” so named for the symptoms of the problem. The situation might also been called “The Complexity Barrier,” so named for the primary cause of the problems. Some refer to the software crisis in the past tense. The crisis is far from over, but thanks to the development of many new techniques that are now included under the title of software engineering, we have made and are continuing to make progress.

In the early days of computing the primary concern was with building or acquiring the hardware. Software was almost expected to take care of itself. The consensus held that “hardware” is “hard” to change, while “software” is “soft,” or easy to change. According, most people in the industry carefully planned hardware development but gave considerably less forethought to the software. If the software didn’t work, they believed, it would be easy enough to change it until it did work. In that case, why make the effort to plan?

The cost of software amounted to such a small fraction of the cost of the hardware that no one considered it very important to manage its development. Everyone, however, saw the importance of producing programs that were efficient and ran fast because this saved time on the expensive hardware. People time was assumed to save machine time. Making the people process efficient received little priority.

This approach proved satisfactory in the early days of computing, when the software was simple. However, as computing matured, programs became more complex and projects grew larger whereas programs had since been routinely specified, written, operated, and maintained all by the same person, programs began to be developed by teams of programmers to meet someone else’s expectations.

Individual effort gave way to team effort. Communication and coordination which once went on within the head of one person had to occur between the heads of many persons, making the whole process very much more complicated. As a result, communication, management, planning and documentation became critical.

Consider this analogy: a carpenter might work alone to build a simple house for himself or herself without more than a general concept of a plan. He or she could work things out or make adjustments as the work progressed. That’s how early programs were written. But if the home is more elaborate, or if it is built for someone else, the carpenter has to plan more carefully how the house is to be built. Plans need to be reviewed with the future owner before construction starts. And if the house is to be built by many carpenters, the whole project certainly has to be planned before work starts so that as one carpenter builds one part of the house, another is not building the other side of a different house. Scheduling becomes a key element so that cement contractors pour the basement walls before the carpenters start the framing. As the house becomes more complex and more people’s work has to be coordinated, blueprints and management plans are required.

As programs became more complex, the early methods used to make blueprints (flowcharts) were no longer satisfactory to represent this greater complexity. And thus it became difficult for one person who needed a program written to convey to another person, the programmer, just what was wanted, or for programmers to convey to each other what they were doing. In fact, without better methods of representation it became difficult for even one programmer to keep track of what he or she is doing.

The times required to write programs and their costs began to exceed to all estimates. It was not unusual for systems to cost more than twice what had been estimated and to take weeks, months or years longer than expected to complete. The systems turned over to the client frequently did not work correctly because the money or time had run out before the programs could be made to work as originally intended. Or the program was so complex that every attempt to fix a problem produced more problems than it fixed. As clients finally saw what they were getting, they often changed their minds about what they wanted. At least one very large military software systems project costing several hundred million dollars was abandoned because it could never be made to work properly.

The quality of programs also became a big concern. As computers and their programs were used for more vital tasks, like monitoring life support equipment, program quality took on new meaning. Since we had increased our dependency on computers and in many cases could no longer get along without them, we discovered how important it is that they work correctly.

Making a change within a complex program turned out to be very expensive. Often even to get the program to do something slightly different was so hard that it was easier to throw out the old program and start over. This, of course, was costly. Part of the evolution in the software engineering approach was learning to develop systems that are built well enough the first time so that simple changes can be made easily.

At the same time, hardware was growing ever less expensive. Tubes were replaced by transistors and transistors were replaced by integrated circuits until micro computers costing less than three thousand dollars have become several million dollars. As an indication of how fast change was occurring, the cost of a given amount of computing decreases by one half every two years. Given this realignment, the times and costs to develop the software were no longer so small, compared to the hardware, that they could be ignored.

As the cost of hardware plummeted, software continued to be written by humans, whose wages were rising. The savings from productivity improvements in software development from the use of assemblers, compilers, and data base management systems did not proceed as rapidly as the savings in hardware costs. Indeed, today software costs not only can no longer be ignored, they have become larger than the hardware costs. Some current developments, such as nonprocedural (fourth generation) languages and the use of artificial intelligence (fifth generation), show promise of increasing software development productivity, but we are only beginning to see their potential.

Another problem was that in the past programs were often before it was fully understood what the program needed to do. Once the program had been written, the client began to express dissatisfaction. And if the client is dissatisfied, ultimately the producer, too, was unhappy. As time went by software developers learned to lay out with paper and pencil exactly what they intended to do before starting. Then they could review the plans with the client to see if they met the client’s expectations. It is simpler and less expensive to make changes to this paper-and-pencil version than to make them after the system has been built. Using good planning makes it less likely that changes will have to be made once the program is finished.

Unfortunately, until several years ago no good method of representation existed to describe satisfactorily systems as complex as those that are being developed today. The only good representation of what the product will look like was the finished product itself. Developers could not show clients what they were planning. And clients could not see whether what the software was what they wanted until it was finally built. Then it was too expensive to change.

Again, consider the analogy of building construction. An architect can draw a floor plan. The client can usually gain some understanding of what the architect has planned and give feed back as to whether it is appropriate. Floor plans are reasonably easy for the layperson to understand because most people are familiar with the drawings representing geometrical objects. The architect and the client share common concepts about space and geometry. But the software engineer must represent for the client a system involving logic and information processing. Since they do not already have a language of common concepts, the software engineer must teach a new language to the client before they can communicate.

Moreover, it is important that this language be simple so it can be learned quickly.

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How To Spot a Fake Jimmy Choo Handbag

  • Label: The Jimmy Choo label is generally a lilac colored metal face fastened to a leather backing, and stitched to the interior of the handbag. Many fakes have the incorrect shade of lilac, either going to light or too dark in the purple spectrum. The label should read in either gold or silver. However, even if the colors are correct, the label may still not be in the clear. Because it often times the font details that are singular to authentic Jimmy Choo that many of fake handbags get wrong, and this is one of the best places to look when trying to identify a phony J. Choo.
  • Font: Always check out the "H" in Choo. On an authentic handbag, the horizontal cross-bar in the H should not be in the center of the letter, the way it is intended to be with regards to most standard fonts. Instead, the Jimmy Choo H should have the cross-bar closer to the top, about 75-80% of the way up the H, if measuring from the bottom of the letter. If the handbag has the correct H, move to the letters "O" in Choo. On an authentic handbag, the O will have a slightly bent look. This means that the "O" will appear as if someone snapped down on the top of the letter, giving the O an oval shape rather than a perfect circle. Spotting a fake Jimmy Choo handbag often times comes down to the subtleties in the font.
  • Hardware: Any screws located on handbag hardware will always be a flat head (-) screw. Jimmy Choo will never use any Philips head (+) screws in any of their handbags.
  • Dustbag: Fake Jimmy Choo handbags will often be accompanied by a dustbag that is an incorrect color or format. An authentic dustbag should have the logo: "JIMMY CHOO," with "LONDON" centered perfectly under the logo. The font should be an embossed gray, while the dustbag itself will be the famous lilac color. Many fakes will have incorrect font colors on the dustbag, as well as the incorrect dustbag color ie the wrong shades of purple etc. Good luck and safe shopping!
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How to Watch Satellite TV Online Without Any Satellite Dish

Anyone can watch satellite TV online without any satellite dish system nowdays. In case you do not know, this article would show you one time-tested and another new revolutionary way to watch satellite TV on the internet without having to set up a satellite dish.

Many of the older generation grew up in an era of satellite dishes, especially for those who live in the rural areas where cable do not exist. The dishes are transmitters and together with receivers are conduits for TV signals to be displayed as visual images and pictures on our TV screens. However, they are not always pleasant. Set up can be tough and definitely not for those who are not good with their hands or have poor technical skills. Satellite dishes have grown smaller in recent years but they used to be larger than 6 foot monsters in earlier days. If that irks you, you would be relieved to know that you can watch satellite TV online just like many others without satellite dish system.

What are the hardware and PC requirements you need to set up your 'satellite-dish less' PC satellite online TV?

1. A Good PCTV Card

A PCTV card can be installed onto your computer to make your computer work like a satellite television set. Such cards come in the form of internal or external hardware. If you are familiar with the inside of a computer, then an internal card could be a good choice since they tend to be cheaper and more affordable. However, do not bother yourself when you find it too troublesome to fix it internally because there are external cards that work more like plug-and-play gadgets. They cost more and can set you back easily by a few hundreds. As long as your PC has a spare USB port, this option to watch satellite TV online is open to you.

2. PC Requirements

I would suggest you check your systems configuration before you start shopping for a PCTV card. Most cards require a minimum Pentium 3 333MHz system to run well but remember to note down the specifications like RAM, hard disk space, Operating System, etc before you head to the stores.

3. Ready Internet Connection

PCTV cards work well with both dial-up and broadband connections. However, I have a word of advice here. Dial-up transmission runs like a snail and is a really serious party spoiler. You can end up more frustrated than glad that you are watching the program. Go for broadband connection if you can afford to.

Okay, now that we have discussed about the older commonly accepted method to watch satellite TV online, we will look at another new revolutionary technique. This requires the usage of PC satellite TV software which can be downloaded easily. The setup is simple and all it takes is downloading the software and clicking a few buttons before you are ready to watch satellite TV online from more than 3000 channels. Awesome is not it?

For more information on this PC satellite TV software, do a read up at my satellite TV blog.

This article may be freely reprinted or distributed in its entity in any ezine, newsletter, blog or website. The author's name, bio and website links must remain intact and be included with every reproduction.

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The Advantages of Working With a Software Boutique Company

First of all, a boutique is a small shop where clients can find dedicated merchandise and unique items, or products which are produced in small quantities. The advantage of entering in such a shop, compared to big supermarkets, is that here you’ll also find staff ready to assist you and to give you guidance step by step. Indeed, one may say that a boutique charges higher prices, also in comparison to chain stores, which is definitely true. However, once you bought something from a boutique you’ll have the feeling that you own a unique item, which will differentiate you from the rest, and isn’t this what we all want – to be unique?

Software boutiques are a new way of defining petite software companies which are focused on a certain niche, and which are able to offer specialized support to their customers. Even more, such a firm is able to offer a unique product, tailored on the client’s needs and requirements. But, let’s see what advantages does a customer have when collaborating with a software boutique company:

Tailored product

A software boutique takes the client’s specifications and transforms them into a customized piece of software. Practically, if you are not satisfied by the mass-produced software programs which you can find, then a boutique company will tailor a product according to each and everyone of your requirements. The outcome will be a software product which is able to fit perfectly your company’s needs.

Niche focus

Generally, a boutique company is focused on a certain niche, for example developing applications and software products using Microsoft technologies. The advantage of having such a partner, is that you’ll have the confidence that he has the knowledge and proven experience to offer you the best advices regarding that specific area, and that he’s always updated with the latest technologies.

Crystal clear communication and dedicated support

Having a smaller amount of projects, a boutique software company can offer its clients dedicated support, according to every client’s need through a direct communication flow. This means that the information won’t need to travel through several departments until it reaches you, so that you’ll always be updated with the status and the quality of the work.

A good communication, not only that can save time, but also can make the development process more efficient. For example if you want a specific functionality for your application, collaborating with a boutique firm, you’ll able to keep track of the development process and promptly interfere in the development process if the work isn’t going in the desired direction, or if you want to change the approach. Also, fewer the clients, better the support. Practically, a software boutique will offer you their entire attention and expertise, whenever this is required.

Every client is important

For a boutique company every client is important, and because they can’t afford to lose a client, they can’t really afford to do a bad job. Every development project is treated with care, and you’ll know for sure that your project will be handled by the best men.

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Wide Area Network (WAN)

Types and Characteristics of WANs

What is a WAN?

There are two prevailing definitions of a Wide Area Network (WAN). The book definition of a WAN is a network that spans large geographical locations, typically to interconnect multiple Local Area Networks (LANs). The practical definition of a WAN is a network that traverses a public network or commercial carrier, using one of several WAN technologies

What are its Main Components?

The main components for a WAN are routers, switches and modems. These components are described below in the hardware section.

CPE – Devices on the subscriber contracts are called customer premises equipment (CPE).
The subscriber owns the CPE or leases the CPE from the service provider. A copper or fiber cable connects the CPE to the service provider's nearest exchange or central office. This cabling is often called the local loop, or "last-mile".

DTE / DCE – Devices that put data on the local loop are called data circuit-terminating equipment, or data communications equipment (DCE). The customer devices that pass the data to the DCE are called data terminal equipment (DTE). The DCE primarily provides an interface for the DTE into the communication link on the WAN cloud.

Hardware

In a WAN you will need various types of hardware components for it to function. The typical items of hardware that you will need in a WAN are:

Router – An electronic device that connects a local area network (LAN) to a wide area network (WAN) and handles the task of routing messages between the two networks. Operates at layer 3, and makes decisions using IP addresses.

Switch – A switch is a network device that selects a path or circuit for sending a unit of data to its next destination. Operates at layer 2, and uses MAC addresses to send data to correct destination.

Modem – Short for modulator / demodulator, a modem that enables a computer to communicate with other computers over telephone lines. Operates at layer 1, where signals are converted from digital to analogue and vice versa for transmission and receiving.

Wan Standards

WANs operate within the OSI model using layer 1 and layer 2 levels. The data link layer and the physical layer. The physical layer protocols describe how to provide electrical, mechanical and functional connections to the services provided by the ISP. The data link layer defines how data is encapsulated for transmission to remote sites.

Encapsulation

Encapsulation is the wrapping of data in a particular protocol header. Remember that WANs operate at the physical layer and the data link layer of the osi model and that higher layer protocols such as IP are encapsulated when sent across the WAN link. Serial interfaces support a wide range of WAN encapsulation types, which must be manually specified. These types include SDLC, PPP, Frame delay etc. Regardless of WAN encapsulation used it must be identical on both sides of the point to point link.

Packet and Circuit Switching

Circuit switching and packet switching are both used in high-capacity networks.
The majority of switched networks today get data across the network
Through packet switching.

Circuit-switching is more reliable than packet-switching. Circuit switching is old and expensive, packet switching is more modern.

General Routing Issues

What is a Routing Protocol?

A routing protocol is a protocol that specifies how routers communicate and exchange information on a network. Each router has prior knowledge of its immediate neighbors and knows the structure of the network topology. The routers know this because the routing protocol shares this information.

Protocol

RIP (Routing Information Protocol) was one of the most commonly used protocols on internal networks. Routers use RIP to dynamically adapt changes to the network connections and communicate information about which networks routers can reach and the distance between them. RIP is sometimes said to stand for Rest in Pieces in reference to the reputation that RIP has for breaking unexpectedly and rendering a network unable to function.

Routing Algorithms

Distance Vector

This type of routing protocol requires that each router simply inform its neighbors of its routing table. The distance vector protocol is also known as the bellman-ford algorithm.

Link State

This type of routing protocol requires that each router maintain a partial map of the network. The link state algorithm is also know as Dijkstra's algorithm.

IGRP

IGRP is a type of distance vector routing protocol invented by cisco used to exchange routing data in a autonomous system. Distance vector protocols measure distances and compare routes. Routers that use distance vector must send all or a portion of their routing table in a routing update message at regular intervals to each neighbor router.

Addressing and Routing

What does routing mean?

Routing is the process of deciding how to move packets from one network to another.
The directions also known as routes can be learned by a router using a routing protocol then the information is passed from router to router along the route of the destination.

IP Address's

Every machine connected to the internet is assigned an IP address. An example of an IP address would be 192.168.0.1. IP addresses are displayed in decimal format to make it easier for humans to understand but computers communicate in binary form. The four numbers that separate an IP address are called Octets. Each position consists of eight bits. When added to together you get 32 ​​bit address. The purpose of each octet in an IP address is to create classes of IP addresses that can be assigned within a network. There are three main classes that we deal with Class A, B and C. The octets of an IP address are split into two parts Network and Host. In a class A address the first octet is the network portion, this determinates which network the computer belongs to, the last octets of the address are the hosts that belong to the network.

Sub netting

Sub netting allows you to create multiple networks within a class A, B or C address. The subnet address is the address used by your LAN. In a Class C network address you would have a subnet mask of 255.255.255.0. A subnet mask identifies which portion is network and which is host. For example 192.168.6.15 the first octet three octets are the Network address and the last octet being the host (Workstation). It is important to subnet a network because gateways need to forward packets to other LANS. By giving each NIC on the gateway an IP address and a Subnet mask it allows the gateways to route packets from LAN to LAN. Once the packet arrives at its destination, the gateway then uses the bits of the subnet portion of the IP address to decide which LAN to send the packets.

Circuit Switched Leased Lines

A circuit switched network is one that establishes a dedicated circuit (or channel) between nodes and terminals before the users may communicate. Here are some terminologies associated with a Circuit switched network.

Frame relay is a telecommunication service designed for cost-efficient data transmission between local area networks (LANs)

Basic rate interference is a service used by small business for internet connectivity. An ISDN BRI provides two 64 Kbps digital channels to the user.
Primary rate interface (PRI) is a telecommunications standard for carrying voice and data transmissions between two locations
All data and voice channels are ISDN and operate at 64kbit / s

Packet Switching

Http://www.raduniversity.com/networks/2004/PacketSwitching/main.htm – _Toc80455261

Packet switching refers to protocols in which messages are broken up into small packets before they are sent. Each packet is then transmitted over the Internet. At the destination the packages are reassembled into the original message. Packet switching main difference from Circuit Switching is that that the communication lines are not dedicated to passing messages from the source to the destination. In Packet Switching, different messages can use the same network resources within the same time period.

Http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Asynchronous_Transfer_Mode

Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) is a cell relay, packet switching network and protocolwhich encodes data into small fixed-sized cells.

ISDN is used to carry voice, data, video and images across a telephone network. ISDN stands for integrated services Digital Network. Isdn also provides users with a 128kbps bandwidth. This is done through frame relay. Frame relay complements and provides a service between ISDN, which offers bandwidth at 128 Kbps and Asynchronous Transfer Mode which operates in somewhat similar fashion to frame relay but at speeds from 155.520 Mbps or 622.080 Mbps. Frame relay is based on the older X.25 packet switching technology and is used to transmit analogue signals such as telephone conversations.

PSDN stands for packet switched data network and is a data communication network. Packet switched networks do not establish a physical communication signal like the public telephone circuit (circuit switched network) Packets are sent on a fixed length basis and assigned with a source and a destination address. The packages then explicitly on the routers to read the address and route the packets through the network.

Mobile and Broadband Services

Digital Subscriber Line (DSL) is mainly used to bring high bandwidth connections to homes and small business's over a copper wire telephone line. This is can only be achieved if you stay within the range of the telephone exchange. DSL offers download rates of up to 6mbps allowing continuous transmission of video, audio and 3D effects. DSL is set to replace ISDN and compete with the cable modem in providing multimedia to homes. DSL works by connecting your telephone line to the telephone office over copper wires that are twisted together.

Asymmetric Digital Subscribers Line is most commonly used for home users. It provides a high download speed but a lower upload speed. Using ADSL, up to 6.1 megabits per second of data can be sent downstream and up to 640 Kbps upstream.

Http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Symmetric_Digital_Subscriber_Line

Symmetric Digital Subscriber Line is a digital subcriber line which runs over one pair of copper wires. The main difference between ADSL and SDSL is the difference in upload and download speeds. SDSL allows the same upstream data rate and downstream data rate as ADSL upstream can be very slow.

[Http://searchnetworking.techtarget.com/sDefinition/0],,sid7_gci558545,00.html

HDSL High bit-rate Digital Subscriber Line, one of the earliest forms of DSL, is used for wideband digital transmission within a corporate site and between the telephone company and a customer. The main characteristic of HDSL is that that provides equal bandwidth in both directions.

IDSL is a system in which data is transmitted at 128 Kbps on a regular copper telephone line from a user to a destination using digital transmission.

The Local Loop enables operators to connect directly to the consumer via copper local loops and then add their own equipment to offer broadband and other services. This process involves operators accessing local exchange buildings to connect to a network of copper lines which connect them to homes and businesses. BT is an Example of a Local Exchange. The local loop connecting the telephone exchange to most subscribers is capable of carrying frequencies well beyond the 3.4 kHz upper limit.

Benefits of using DSL

DSL can provide a virtual instantaneous transmission of voice, data and video over ordinary copper phone lines. A DSL connection can eliminate delays while waiting to download information and graphics from the Internet. It provides users with a cost effective high speed Internet connection. Another benefit is that a DSL connection is always on-line (like a LAN connection) with no waiting time for dialing or connecting.

There are now more than 10 million broadband connections in the UK. By December 2005 there were 9.792 million broadband connections in the UK and the average broadband take up rate during the three months to December was more than 70,000 per week.

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Visualwize Chess Training Software: A Review

Chess enthusiasts of all levels are always seeking ways to improve their chess skills, so that they can win at chess games, whether they play professionally or socially.

One of the most effective ways to improve your chess skills is to use a chess visualization software, which enables you to practice and improve your visualization skills. Visualization is one of the most important skills you need to succeed in chess.

A program that is apparently gaining a lot of popularity and is helping many people to improve their chess is Visualwize Chess Training Software.

Let’s address the basic questions on this software.

What is it?

Visualwize is a chess training software that trains your ability to have a clear mental picture of chess moves before you make these moves on the board. This enables you to assess the implications of your moves before you make the actual moves. This therefore enables you to play better at chess, as you will be able to make the right decisions and avoid making some mistakes that would make you lost a game.

This program has 240 visualization training exercises which are designed to develop your visualization skills. It has and more than 1200 moves to visualize. These moves are real moves made by a master player in real chess games. With the software, you can train to visualize up to 8 moves ahead.

The program consists of 4 levels, level 1 being rather easy and level 4 being hard. You can order the level that suits your needs. For those who really want to significantly improve their skills, level 4, the complete program, is recommended.

How does it work – what does the program actually do?

In simple terms, the program shows a chess position from a game between two chess masters, and then, with arrows, it shows the next few moves that have been made in that position by the renowned chess masters. The arrows stop in a position where a tactic, i.e., a combination that wins the game exists.

Unlike other programs and books that use written annotations for the moves, this program uses arrows on the board. This means it reflects a realistic playing scenario, and you don’t have to take your attention and eyes from the board to read written annotations.

This is one major factor that separates this program from others that are available on the Internet today. Rather than building up the skill of moving your eyes between notation and the board, Visualwize trains you in the art of seeing unfolding moves without actually affecting the board.

On the website where the program is offered, there are many informative and short videos that you can watch, which describe how the program works.

Why is it important – what benefits can you get from this program?

It is recommended that chess players wanting to take their chess to the next level use this program because it offers several benefits:

  • You will be able to see more chess moves ahead, before you actually make any move on the board, giving you an opportunity to assess the consequences of every move before you make it.
  • You will avoid making mistakes which can make you lose a game in an instant.
  • You will make the most of your training time since you will be able to easily visualize the notation below chess diagrams.
  • You become an efficient and effective chess player – you won’t need to calculate variations several times over because you will be able to clearly the consequences of your move in your mind, saving you a lot of time.
  • You will make a wise investment that will help you significantly improve your chess – the program is favourably priced at only $30. If you were to hire a chess coach, you would pay a very high fee per hour of the coach’s time to train you.
  • It is convenient – once you purchase the program, you can train at any time of the day or night, as much as you want.

With several books and programs on how to improve chess, available today, Visualwize is considered to be a cut above the rest among many chess enthusiasts.

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Why Architectural Drafting Is Common in Architectural Design

For architectural design projects, while there is the emphasis on using 3D models and architectural BIM modeling, the time-tested practice of using architectural drafting and 2D technical drawings is still commonplace in the AEC industry. Architectural drafting has evolved from the drawing board to computer-aided design and drafting (CAD) software programs. Drafting practices help to provide architectural construction drawings that include the technical details of architectural, structural and electrical elements required for the construction of a building. To understand the stage at which architectural drafting takes place, the workflow of a building design lifecycle must be considered.

The basic workflow of an architectural design project starts with the architect creating a conceptual plan which is usually modelled into architectural 3D models and rendered as photorealistic images for marketing and presentation to clients and customers.

Once the conceptual design is approved by the client, the design is then progressed into more detail and shared with other parties such as structural and MEP engineers. The way in which the design is progressed for the ‘design development’ phase by an architect lends itself to two options, either to develop a 3D model with more detail and then create subsequent sheets and details using a 3D tool such as Revit or AutoCAD, or as is still commonplace, to develop the concept design in 2D using more traditional methods. From the conceptual plans provided by architects and engineers, a drafter can convert these designs using CAD software programs to create technical drawings.

Architectural drafting is the process of creating technical drawings which include the floor plan, sections, elevations, detailed drawings and other documents in a construction drawing set (CD Set), which are typically required for the construction of a building.

The difference between Architectural Drafting and Modelling

Architectural drafting refers to creating 2D technical drawings and architectural construction drawings which are mainly used by contractors and consultants on site. Architectural 3D modelling refers to creating 3D models and renders of photorealistic images which are mainly used to present the architectural design for marketing purposes and then progressed from there to create the 2D technical drawings, in effect feeling like an extra stage (the 3D modelling element). The main software used for drafting, to create 2D technical drawings is AutoCAD while modellers use Revit and ArchiCAD to create 3D models and rendered images. Architectural draftsmen need to have basic 2D and 3D software knowledge such as AutoCAD and knowledge of technical codes and drafting guidelines specified by organisations such as American National Standards Institute (ANSI), American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME), American Design Drafting Association (ADDA), Public Works Government Services Canada (PWGSC), National Institute of Building Sciences (NIBS), BSI British Standards Institute and Standards Australia Code AS1100. Architectural modellers need to have a deeper understanding of architectural, building and construction concepts and experience with 3D software programs such as Revit and ArchiCAD.

Why Architectural Drafting is still Common in Architectural Design Practices

Architectural 3D models are preferred by architects and designers because they provide a 3D perspective of the conceptual plan of the building; it makes management of project data easier and allows for design changes on the go. However, construction companies that require technical specifications of the architectural project prefer 2D technical drawings and architectural construction drawings because they provide accurate details required for construction, most of the resources involved in construction understand 2D drawings, there are no issues with compatibility of software as compared to when using 3D models and it is a suitable solution to meet the budgetary requirements of a construction project. Some of the reasons why architectural drafting is preferable by several construction companies include:

• Suitable as per construction requirements – In some building projects, 2D technical drawings or architectural CAD drawings are sufficient to complete construction, where additional information that 3D models provide is not required. A construction drawing set (CD set) includes all the floor plans, elevations, sections and detailed drawings required for construction. Technical codes, symbols and other additional information such as the type of material are provided in technical drawings. Therefore, construction companies find 2D technical drawings sufficient to successfully complete construction.

• Availability of technical resources – Not all companies have technical resources to deliver 3D models. While drafting teams are qualified to work on AutoCAD to deliver 2D technical drawings, they may not be qualified to work on Revit to deliver 3D models. In the construction industry, the availability of drafting teams who can provide 2D technical drawings is ample compared to companies that provide 3D modelling services.

• Availability of software – The adoption of new software and practices is gradual and slow in the construction industry. The software used in building projects varies from country to country. Some countries use ArchiCAD and AutoCAD Architecture instead of Revit, therefore leading to the incompatibility of project data. 2D technical drawings in AutoCAD are widely used and compatible making it a preferred option to Revit 3D models.

• Suitable as per cost and budgetary requirements – In most cases, construction companies do not find the need to invest more in 3D models, when drafting solutions provide detailed technical drawings which are sufficient and relevant enough for construction. There is also the added investment in resources that are competent enough to understand and implement architectural 3d models on-site.

While architectural 3D modelling and BIM modelling provide design-related information typically required for architects and designers in the design stage of the building project lifecycle, architectural drafting provides technical drawings that are not just about aesthetics but about high-performance detailing of construction elements. Architectural CAD drawings specifically communicate the design intent and help in the construction of buildings which companies find relevantly sufficient over 3D models. Even as construction companies will need to eventually evolve to combining the use of 2D technical drawings and architectural 3D models until then, the time-tested practice of using architectural drafting and drawing solutions in construction is here to stay.

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The Role of Technology in Education

In the current age we live in, technology has become an important component. Every day there is some new gadget or software that makes lives easier and improves on the technology and software that already exists. Making lives easier is not, however, the only role technology plays in our lives.

Technology is playing an increasing role in education. As technology advances, it is used to benefit students of all ages in the learning process.

Technology used in the classroom helps students adsorb the material. For example, since some people are visual learners, projection screens linked to computers can allow students to see their notes instead of simply listening to a teacher deliver a lecture.

Software can be used to supplement class curriculum. The programs provide study questions, activities, and even tests and quizzes for a class that can help students continue learning outside the classroom.

Technology has also become part of many curriculums, even outside of computer and technology classes. Students use computers to create presentations and use the Internet to research topics for papers and essays.

Students also learn to use the technology available to them in computer and tech classes. This ensures that after graduation they will be able to use the technology in a work setting, which may put them ahead of someone who did not have access to a particular technology or software in their own school setting.

As technology advances, students have better access to educational opportunities like these. When something new and "better" is disclosed, the "older" technology becomes more affordable, allowing it to be used in educational settings, even when schools are on a tight budget.

Technology has also advanced to help children even before they've started school. Educational video games and systems for young children helps them prepare for school and in some cases get a head start on their education.

There are people who may say children are "spoiled" by technology. Instead of being able to add a long column of numbers in their heads, for example, they turn to a calculator. Regardless of these arguments, technology is an important part of today's society. By incorporating it into the classroom, students will be better equipped to transition from the classroom to the work place.

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